Correlations Between Biodiesel Blends and Advanced Combustion with NOx Emissions

Correlations Between Biodiesel Blends and Advanced Combustion with NOx Emissions poster

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Audio Transcript

Research Authorship:

Stormy Gaenicke and Dr. John Nuszkowski

Faculty Mentor:

Dr. John Nuszkowski | College of Computing, Engineering and Construction | School of Engineering

Abstract:

Studies on NOx emissions and its contributors are becoming more important due to the high emission standards placed on industry research from particulate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx pollutants. Biodiesels have been a topic of study as an alternative to diesel fuel in hopes of fulfilling these emission standards. The research regarding the effects on NOx emissions has shown mixed results, while attributing these results to a few factors such as saturation levels – the amount of oxygen needed fully reduce the carbon double bonds present in the blend and ignition timing. Fuel properties from biodiesel blends of 20% (B20) were statistically analyzed to determine which properties and biodiesel blend mixtures have a high correlation to NOx emission levels. Along with Biodiesels and Biodiesel-blends, advanced combustion conventions such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), low temperature combustion (LTC), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are highly researched methods to reduce pollutants. Various fuel properties from Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels used in both single and split injection were statistically analyzed to find correlations between the fuel properties and NOx emission levels. Due to the findings from the B20 blend analysis, it appears that more attention should be given to testing of various fuels rather than manipulating the engine’s operating conditions. However, based on findings from the advanced combustion analysis using FACE diesel fuel, the injection type along with the fuel properties have a significant effect on the NOx emission levels.

*This is only a script, not a direct transcription.  Audio may not exactly match words written in the script

Intro: My name is Stormy Gaenicke and my project is on Correlations Between Biodiesel Blends and Advanced Combustion with NOx Emissions. 

Abstract: Studies on NOx emissions and its contributors are becoming more important due to the high emission standards placed on industry research from particulate, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx pollutants. Biodiesels have been a topic of study as an alternative to diesel fuel in hopes of fulfilling these emission standards. The research regarding the effects on NOx emissions has shown mixed results, while attributing these results to a few factors such as saturation levels – the amount of oxygen needed fully reduce the carbon double bonds present in the blend and ignition timing. Fuel properties from biodiesel blends of 20% (B20) were statistically analyzed to determine which properties and biodiesel blend mixtures have a high correlation to NOx emission levels. Along with Biodiesels and Biodiesel-blends, advanced combustion conventions such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), low temperature combustion (LTC), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are highly researched methods to reduce pollutants.  Various fuel properties from Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel fuels used in both single and split injection were statistically analyzed to find correlations between the fuel properties and NOx emission levels.  Due to the findings from the B20 blend analysis, it appears that more attention should be given to testing of various fuels rather than manipulating the engine’s operating conditions. However, based on findings from the advanced combustion analysis using FACE diesel fuel, the injection type along with the fuel properties have a significant effect on the NOx emission levels. 

Applications: Due to an increase in NOx emissions from biodiesel Blends compared to that of neat diesel fuel, biodiesel blends of 5 to 20% are not allowed in California without an approved NOx-reducing additive. For advanced combustion, these newer combustion modes each behave differently. So, having an understanding of which fuel properties influences combustion modes is a necessity. 

Research Objectives: The objective of this research was to determine correlations between biodiesel blend fuel properties and NOx emission levels as well as determine correlations between face diesel fuel properties for both single and split injection and their respective NOx emission levels.

Methods: In order to complete this research a code was created using Python to perform the following: run a data file, calculate correlations and statistical significance, output of correlation heatmap, and hide any values that are not statistically significant. Once the desired data was collected through literature review. The data was transposed from graphs using a graph-to-table online resource. The transposed data was then input as a CSV file into the code and a heat map was produced. The Heat Map was then analyzed to determine the highest correlating values between fuel properties and NOx emission levels. A scatter plot was then created using the highest correlating fuel property and the NOx emissions levels for a more clear representation of the correlation. 

Results and Conclusions: For biodiesel blend with one injection type. The highest correlating fuel property was the Iodine Number shown in dark red on the heat map. Once the Iodine Number and NOx emissions levels were graphed using a scatter plot, if was clear that they had an almost completely linear relationship meaning as the Iodine Number increased, the NOx emissions levels also increased.  The scatterplot also produced a correlation value of 0.9176, suggesting that they have a nearly 92% correlation to one another.  The second highest correlating fuel property was a Peroxide Number, shown in dark orange next to the dark red.  Once the Peroxide Number and NOx emissions levels were graphed using a scatter plot, it became clear that they had a less linear relationship. However, as the Peroxide Number increases there is a slight increase in the overall NOx emission levels.  The correlation value produced by the scatter plot suggest that there is only a 60% correlation between the Peroxide Number and NOx emission levels.

For FACE diesel fuels using single injection. The highest correlating fuel property was Indenes once a scatter plot was created of the Indenes and NOx emissions levels and correlation value of nearly 72% was discovered. For FACE diesel fuels with split injection type the highest correlating fuel properties were the total aromatics. Once graphed, it appears that they have an almost linear relationship. However, a correlation value of only 78% was produced. 

Future Research: After analyzing the two diesel fuels, injection types, and fuel properties. It is clear that multiple variables correlate to NOx emission levels.  The knowledge gained on how these fuel properties and injection types relate to NOx emissions can be used as a baseline for future testing.  Using the diesel engine test bench located at UNF a variety of biodiesel blend mixtures will be created and injected into an engine and their NOx values recorded. The newly collected data will then be statistically analyzed using the same code to determine which biodiesel blend and its fuel properties had the greatest effect on increasing or decreasing the NOx emission levels. I hope to continue this research throughout my graduate program as the subject for my Master’s Thesis.

I would like to thank Dr. John Nuszkowski for his support and assistance throughout this project.

Thank you for listening, and have a great day.

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