Raymond Colon, Dr. Zhiping Yu
Dr. Zhiping Yu | Brooks College of Health | Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
Objectives: Fruits and vegetables (FV) play an important role in people’s health. The current study aimed to identify if specific colors of FVs are associated with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in the United States Hispanic/Latino population.
Methods: This study used a subgroup of participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). This is a multi-center, prospective cohort study with 16,415 self-identified Hispanic/Latino individuals from 2008-2011. Data collected include anthropometrics, OGTT, dietary intake, medical history, physical activity, and sociodemographic information. FVs are categorized into five color groups: green, white, yellow/orange, red/purple, and uncategorized.
Results: Total 5,740 participants (ages 18-74, BMI 29.5, female 55.2%, US born 21.4%, confirmed DM 13.6%) were included in the analysis. Across all heritage groups, the red/purple FV were the least consumed. Excluding the uncategorized group, white FV had the highest consumption across all groups. Puerto Ricans consume the least FV compared to other heritage groups. When assessing the association between FV colors and the level of cardiometabolic risk factors, higher intake of red/purple FVs is associated with lower BMI, lower insulin levels and higher HDL levels. A higher intake of white FVs is associated with a higher OGTT glucose and triglyceride levels. Consumption of a higher amount of white FVs daily has higher odds of having diabetes (OR=1.25, p=0.03).
Conclusions: More research is needed to confirm results. Education should focus on varying fruit and vegetable intake and identify causes of low fruit and vegetable intake in Hispanic/Latino groups living in the US.